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The Benefits of Quitting Smoking

Wednesday, March 2, 2016 // Uncategorized

It’s never too late.  From a recent review article on smoking cessation from the Annals of Internal Medicine. Even patients who have lung cancer have an average survival that is longer in those who quit smoking than those who continue to smoke.

The benefits of quitting begin immediately and last for decades. After 10 years of smoking cessation, the risk for lung cancer in former smokers was reduced up to 50% (1). Smoking cessation reduces risk for death from CAD by two thirds within 2–3 years of quitting, with risk approaching that of persons who have never smoked (12, 13). Circulation improves within weeks of quitting, and stroke risk is reduced to the level of that of nonsmokers in 2–4 years (14). Lung function improves within 3 months. Smoking cessation during the first 3–4 months of pregnancy reduces risk for low birthweight to that of never-smokers. Other benefits include reduced damaging effects on skin, breath, teeth and gums, smell, and taste. Finally, smokers and providers should be aware that tobacco use can affect metabolism of caffeine and commonly prescribed medications, including olanzapine, clozapine, and theophylline (15). Therefore, when smokers successfully quit, medication doses might be lowered.

Health Benefits of Quitting Tobacco

Symptoms: Minutes–days: Lower BP; lower carbon monoxide; better stamina, smell, tasteLung function

  • 2–4 weeks: Decreased respiratory infections

  • 4–12 weeks: Improved lung function

Cardiovascular disease

  • 2–3 months: Improved circulation

  • 1 year: 50% reduction for heart attack

  • 5–15 years: Cardiovascular risk equals that of never-smokers

Cancer: 10 years: Risk for lung cancer reduced by half

Is there an age after which smoking cessation no longer yields benefit?
Smoking cessation benefits people of all ages, regardless of smoking history (6, 7). Older smokers, despite smoking for many years, may have increased motivation from health concerns and symptoms of tobacco-related illness, experience with what has been successful in past quit attempts, and better access to treatment resources.
Two large, recent, retrospective cohort analyses showed that smokers who quit at age 55–64 years gained 4 years of life and that even those who quit after age 70 years had lower risk for mortality than those who continued to smoke (6, 7).
Clinical Bottom Line: Health Consequences of Smoking
Tobacco use affects nearly every organ system in the body and leads to numerous disorders, including heart disease, stroke, many types of cancer, vascular disease, respiratory infections, diabetes, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The health benefits of quitting start within minutes and continue for years. These risk-reduction benefits are especially significant for smokers with CAD, COPD, or those who are pregnant by reducing preterm labor and low birthweight. Cessation for smokers with children can reduce exposure to and disease caused by environmental tobacco smoke. Even after decades of smoking, those who stop smoking significantly reduce their risk for death from certain diseases, such as lung cancer, and slow the deterioration of lung function in patients with COPD. One is never too old or young, too healthy or sick, to benefit from smoking cessation.
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